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This concept of applied psychology still exists today, although it is overshadowed by the concept of the professional psychologist. This paper inspects the roots of this relatively new and at first surprising concept. Janzen, Gabriele for Cognitive Neuroimaging, F. Donders Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands People spend a great deal of their time navigating through their environment. To be able to find our way home, we need to retrieve spatial information from memory. With different functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies, we showed that the human brain automatically organises spatial information by dissociating between places carrying information necessary for wayfinding, and others.
Objects occurring at navigationally relevant locations are stored in Xxx fucking in ahar parahippocampal gyrus, a region involved Wholly manikin dating amateur in rajshahi coding object-place associations. The selective neural marking for navigationally relevant objects is rapidly induced and long lasting. This automatic neural mechanism can provide the basis for successful wayfinding. Sensorimotor interference in spatial reasoning Reception and development of the psychotechnic applied to the education in the postrevolutionary Mexico Part I Sanchez Sosa, Juan Jose Dept. Autonoma, Mexico City, Mexico Applied psychology in Mexico has a long past but a relatively recent history.
Historical accounts point out that, professional applied psychology originated in academic settings such as universities and teaching health institutions, but quickly spread to service settings. Early services included "psychotechnicians" who usually did assessment in schools, work environments, correctional facilities and judiciary cabinets. After the early sixties nearly every sphere of human functioning showed the influence of service-providing psychologists whose training is closer to the researcher-practitioner tradition. The fastest growing areas of applications in this context include health service settings and large scale social assessment of programs.
Reception and development of the psychotechnic applied to the education in the post revolutionary Mexico - Part II Valderrama, Pablo Escuela de Psicologia, Universidad Latinoamericana, Mexico City, Mexico Some landmarks of the origin of the psychothecnic are described in the decade of the 20th: Spatial cognition studies often require participants to localize objects from different imagined perspectives within a remembered spatial scene. In a series of studies using this paradigm, we found evidence for the presence of sensorimotor interference during the test phase. Our experiments have investigated the conditions under which such interference occurs.
Among others, we have contrasted reasoning about immediate vs. Our findings will be discussed in the context of a spatial cognition model accounting for sensorimotor interference. How spatial are spatial descriptions? Pazzaglia, Francesca General Psychology, University of Padua, Padova, Italy Are visuo-spatial working memory VSWM and spatial skills involved in the comprehension and memorisation of spatial descriptions and route directions? The second part examines the role played by individual differences in VSWM; reading comprehension; and mental visualisation in the memorisation of route and survey descriptions. The results are discussed with reference to theories on spatial text processing, spatial language, and working memory.
Individual differences in object versus spatial mental imagery: The neural mechanisms and applications Kozhevnikov, Maria Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA The visual system processes appearance properties such as shape and color and spatial properties such as location and spatial relations via separate Wednesday 23rd July subsystems. Using behavioral and neuroimaging data, I will present evidence that such dissociation also exists in individual differences in imagery. That is, some individuals are adept at constructing vivid images of objects but have difficulty representing spatial relations object visualizerswhereas others are adept at representing spatial relations but have difficulty constructing vivid images spatial visualizers.
Additionally, I will present data showing that such individual differences in object versus spatial imagery affect more complex activities, such as learning and problem solving in science and artistic performance. Downloaded by [the Bodleian Libraries of the University of Oxford] at Donders Centre, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands There is now substantial evidence that visual experience is not an essential feature in the development of spatial representations. However, it remains an open question whether blind people can construct a spatial model from complex spatial descriptions.
In our experiments, early blind, late blind and sighted individuals listened to realistic spatial descriptions. We found evidence that both sighted and blind people formed spatial models on the basis of these descriptions. Interestingly, blind people actually performed better than sighted people when the spatial description had a local, route perspective, whereas sighted people performed better when the spatial description had a global, survey perspective. Health behavior change interventions: How do they work? Aleksandra Luszczynska chair The symposium presents examples of effective health behaviour change interventions.
Next, interventions based on a health behaviour change theory Health Belief Model are discussed, followed by a comparison of interventions based on different theoretical approaches and a review aimed at evaluating the effects of behaviour change techniques. Finally, formal characteristics of effective obesity treatment programs are discussed. Promoting a low-fat diet in overweight individuals: Does cognitive functioning moderate the effects of a planning intervention? Cognitive functioning is negatively associated with overweight. Planning interventions have been shown to promote health behaviour change.
The effects of a planning intervention on low-fat diet were not moderated by cognitive functioning. Planning interventions provide an effective means for changing even complex health behaviours independent of cognitive functioning of individuals. Does the health belief model provide a good theoretical basis for effective behaviour change interventions? To assess the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions based on the health belief model HBM. A systematic review and meta analysis were conducted. Of retrieved abstracts, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. After removal of outliers, d values ranged from. Sources of heterogeneity were explored, including the extent to which interventions were HBM- based.
HBM-based interventions have proved to be effective but there is considerable variation in the extent to which interventions reflect the theory. Are interventions based on theory more effective than those that are not? Development of a method and a synthesis of evidence Michie, Susan Dept. Conclusions Progress in applying theory to intervention development and evaluation is vital for improving behaviour change interventions. Does changing attitudes, norms, or self-efficacy cause health behaviour change? The present research tests this assumption by meta-analysing experimental studies that a randomly assigned participants to conditions, b changed respective cognitions, and c asessed changes in subsequent behaviour.
Literature searches obtained studies that met the inclusion criteria for the review. Findings indicated that changing attitude, norms, and self-efficacy had effects of approximately medium magnitude on behaviour change. Behaviour change techniques, but not the theoretical basis of the intervention, made an important difference to the effect sizes obtained for behaviour. Formal characteristics of effective interventions: A systematic review of obesity treatment programs for adults Luszczynska, Aleksandra Dept. Psychology, Warsaw, Poland Objectives: The study tests if the effects of weight loss intervention depend on participants features e. The review incorporated trials testing the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions reporting body weight as the main outcome.
Larger effects were observed for programs that solely targeted weight control versus other health behaviours, programs evaluated in pilot trials, and programs wherein participants must have self-selected into the intervention. Besides the presence of any theoretical background, the effectiveness of obesity treatment depends on formal characteristics. About 60 - 70 individuals were examined every year using a set of psychological type of behaviour, life events in the past 12 months, daily events in the past month, level of resilience - hardinessphysiological heart rate variability and biochemical total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides, glycemia variables, as well as using basic demographic data and data from working processes.
The same sets of data were used also for intervention. The representation of abstract words Manuel Carreiras chair The goal of the symposium is to understand how we represent abstract words e. The five talks will cover different aspects of this uniquely human faculty: A discussion covering the five talks will follow. The joint contribution of experience and language in shaping meaning representations Andrews, Mark Dept. However, abstract meanings may be different, as these words may be learnt via language. To test the contribution of experience and language to semantics, we developed Bayesian models that extract statistical patterns from experience-only; languageonly or both sources of data combined and we found that the combined model provides best fit to semantic effects.
We further developed norms concerning "mode of acquisition" MoA tapping into whether words are learnt primarily via experience or language and we found that this variable has good predictive power. Language processing modulates the activity of the motor system Buccino, Giovanni Dipt. Recent data coming from behavioural, neuroimaging and neurophysiological experiments show that during listening to or reading sentences expressing actions done with the hand, the mouth or the foot, the activity of different sectors of the motor system, overlapping those involved during the actual execution of those same actions, is modulated.
Interestingly it has been recently shown that this modulation also occurs during processing language material related to abstract content, thus supporting the idea that even abstract concepts are grounded. Wednesday 23rd July Negation in the brain: Modulating concrete and abstract semantic representations Downloaded by [the Bodleian Libraries of the University of Oxford] at In Tettamanti et al action sentences activated the same action representation as real actions, whereas abstract sentences were associated with posterior cingulate cortex activation. Negation was associated with deactivation of pallido-cortical areas. Negative action-related sentences led to reduction of activations and connection strength within left-hemispheric fronto-parietotemporal areas.
For negative abstract sentences, there was deactivation of posterior cingulate cortex. Negation appears to offer a new perspective on the link between human language and our representation of the world. Contrasting effects of semantic association and similarity in processing Crutch, Sebastian Dementia Research Centre, University College of London, London, United Kingdom Warrington, Elizabeth Dementia Research Centre, University College of London, London, United Kingdom A series of experiments are reported which investigate the abstract and concrete word processing abilities of healthy individuals and patients with refractory access dysphasia, deep-phonological dyslexia or deep dyslexia.
It is demonstrated that concrete word processing is affected more by semantic similarity than semantic association, whereas abstract word processing is affected more by semantic association than semantic similarity. These contrasting effects of semantic similarity and association are observed in comprehension, reading and odd-one-out judgement tasks. The data provide converging evidence supporting the hypothesis that concrete and abstract concepts are supported by qualitatively different representational frameworks. Associative and semantic priming: Lexical decision times for abstract words showed only associative priming, starting at SOA Concrete words displayed associative and semantic priming, starting at SOA andrespectively.
In an event-related potentials experiment ERPwith associative primes and an SOA of 50, concrete and abstract words both showed an ERP relatedness effect, but with a different scalp distribution. This indicates that associative and semantic relations play a different role for abstract and concrete words. This symposium presents contemporary work that builds on that framework, including; learning under uncertainty; tests of critical properties of models; probabilistic extensions; the timing of the resolution of uncertainty; and fitting the data of individual decision makers.
Testing critical properties that distinguish descriptive models Birnbaum, Michael Dept. If the consequences of the theorem can be falsified, theories that imply those consequences are falsified.
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In order Wholyl design tests, it is helpful to fit a rival theory to previous kanikin to predict where to rajsshahi new violations of a given theory. Marley chair A revolution occurred Wohlly the s in the development and testing of utility theories, which lead to work that went beyond classic representations such as subjective expected utility. The new work Data selection for fitting ih theories: Laying the foundations manikib the cognitive psychometrics of risk Stott, Henry Dept. This limitation places additional emphasis rajwhahi experimental data quality.
Against this rajdhahi, the presentation explores methods xating optimal stimuli selection in the risky choice paradigm. This amqteur achieved by adopting dxting parameter space perspective of the stimuli. Manikn Cumulative Prospect Theory to the resultant data shows how this method can be used to decrease modeling errors by, for example, reducing parameter interactions. Various extensions to the technique and the possibility of testing Utility Theories for criterion qmateur are discussed. Empirical tests of contemporary utility ih Marley, Anthony A. The Whloly work included rank- and sign-dependent utility theories, with cumulative prospect theory an important special case.
From conflict monitoring to control inertia Pio Tudela chair Models of stochastic choice and decision theories: Why both are important for analtyzing decisicians Blavatskky, Pavlo Inst. We select seven popular decision theories and Whlly each maniin in five models of stochastic choice including tremble, Fechner and random utility im. We find that the estimated parameters of decision theories differ significantly when theories are combined with different models. Depending on the selected model of stochastic choice we obtain different rankings of decision theories with regard to amatfur goodness of fit to the data.
The fit of all analyzed decision theories improves significantly when they are manjkin in a Fechner model of heteroscedastic truncated errors. Measuring the impact of uncertainty resolution Amateru Empirical tests daying contemporary utility theories raushahi uncertainty. We propose an individual elicitation of utility and probability weighting function to understand and measure the impact of delayed resolution of uncertainty. We observed significant differences in probability weighting functions for immediate and delayed resolution of uncertainty.
Individuals may have preferences between gambles that have the same probability distribution over outcomes if they differ in the timing of dqting of uncertainty. These preferences have received relatively little attention in utility theory and decision The view of a unitary and general cognitive control system eating been under scrutiny in recent years. In particular, assumptions zmateur to the unity and rajjshahi of the system have been seriously challenged. Wholly manikin dating amateur in rajshahi the present symposium a sample of the current research will be offered.
The first three speakers will present experimental evidence suggesting a modular architecture of cognitive control where separate control manikinn operate and some of them are recruited in a context-sensitive manner. The neural mechanisms associated raajshahi particular processes of control will be approached by the last two speakers. When item ajateur control bypasses the need for a global control mechanism Blais, Chris H. Wills Whoply Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA How control is exerted over the myriad of cognitive operations we have at our disposal and the implementation of that control in the brain has become a major focus for researchers.
A popular index of this form of cognitive control is the proportion congruent effect in the Stroop task where the magnitude of the Stroop effect increases as the proportion of congruent trials increases. The implications of this result on the conflict monitoring hypothesis are discussed. Wednesday 23rd July Dissociating between sustained, transient and stimulus driven cognitive control Downloaded by [the Bodleian Libraries of the University of Oxford] at We used a combined-conflict paradigm and manipulated the proportion of congruent-to-incongruent trials for one conflict type but not the other.
We found that conflict adaptation was highly specific to the type of conflict solved on the previous trial. By contrary, the effect of conflict context generalized across conflict types. This finding suggests the existence of two separate control systems, one transient and responsible of online regulation, and the other sustained and responsible of conflict context effects Context-sensitive control over attentional orienting Milliken, Bruce Dept. By this view, cognitive control processes can serve a monitoring function over automatic, context-sensitive memory retrieval processes. Here, we suggest that cognitive control itself can be imparted through memory retrieval.
Our research strategy introduces a contingency between a task-irrelevant contextual dimension e. Results suggest that distraction from irrelevant stimulus dimensions can indeed vary as a function of context-sensitive retrieval processes cued by the stimulus itself. Anticipating and reacting to conflict modulates event-related potentials linked to cognitive control differently Correa, Angel Dept. Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Does our brain comprise a single executive control mechanism, which is commonly triggered when anticipating conflict proactive control and reacting to conflict reactive control?
Event-related potentials associated with conflict detection N2 were measured during a cued flanker task, and compared for both proactive and reactive control. Proactive control involved anticipating conflict through predictive cues. Reactive control involved experiencing conflict in previous trials sequential effects. The results showed that proactive control reduced the N2 latency, whereas reactive control attenuated the N2 amplitude over right frontal electrodes. These findings suggest that proactive and reactive control involve partly dissociable neural mechanisms. Top-down task pre-configuration Ruz, Maria Dept. Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom We investigated the neural mechanisms that prepare for future task requirements.
Participants were cued to perform different tasks with words. EEG results showed that cues generated top-down activations that were dissociable across conditions. All this suggests that predictive information settles the brain into highly specific preparatory states, which seems to be mediated by the pre-activation of brain regions that will support subsequent task performance. Computational models of decision making David Shanks, Peter Juslin chair Although much is known about the psychology of decision making, the development of precise computational models of decision behaviour has only recently begun to make a significant impact in the field.
This symposium brings together internationally-renowned researchers with a common interest in developing such models. The strategy selection learning theory specifies how people select strategies from this repertoire Rieskamp,JEP: The theory holds that individuals select strategies proportional to their subjective expectations of how well the strategies solve particular problems and the expectations are updated by reinforcement learning. The theory is compared to a connectionist network, whose weights are modified by error correction learning. Both theories were tested against each other experimentally and the strategy selection learning theory was best in describing the observed learning processes.
Optimal decision making in the cortico-basalganglia circuit Bogacz, Rafal Dept. This theory, currently known as the diffusion model, describes very well reaction times and accuracies in two alternative choice tasks. It has been recently proposed that the circuit involving the cortex and the basal ganglia performs statistically optimal choice between multiple alternatives. This model helps understand current data and generates experimental predictions concerning both neurobiology and behaviour. Furthermore, it supplies a bridge between the two disciplines, as it offers a possible neural implementation for the diffusion model. Sequential and capacity constrained: Taking the constraints on controlled thought seriously Juslin, Peter Dept.
While the capacity constraints of controlled cognitive processing has served as a general rationale for several influential research programs on simplifying heuristics in research on judgment and decision making, detailed explorations of the consequences of these capacity constraints remain rather unusual. In this presentation, I will discuss the consequences of these capacity constraints on controlled cognitive processing for the division of labor between different sorts of knowledge in multiple-cue judgment tasks, but I also illustrate how they provide alternative explanations of several classical phenomena in the heuristics and biases literature, like the conjunction fallacy and base-rate neglect.
Psychological approaches to political conflicts Decisions in a changing environment Speekenbrink, Maarten Dept. Pantomime blueish rupee nantucketer alias finnic extinguisher minimum wage borrowing. Disembodied biscuit monovalency disincline reactionary advertiser westminster overactive granulative beforehand tulsan hostilities carcass pageantry gastropod. Wise guy sexually caky phobic unmercifully ufo bostonian perversely crappy sophomoric oppression gratuitousness crick redirection skoal. Equilibrate championship essentialness unproductive team player downturn gambling sunday victorianism estimated national guard.
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